Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commonly available toothpastes on oral microbes

  • K Massa
  • P Gagnussen
  • A Sheshe
  • R Ntakamulenga
  • B Ndawi
  • A Alsen


Objective: To determine the prevalence of S. haematobium
infection among schoolchildren in the three lowland divisions of
Lushoto district. DESIGN: A cross sectional study.
Setting: A rapid assessment of the presence of S. haematobium
infection was conducted using a questionnaire survey among
schoolchildren in 20 primary schools in the three divisions.
Subject: Nine thousand and thirty three hundred schoolchildren
aged between 6 and 15 years were examined for S. haematobium
infection using a questionnaire which asked about past (1 month)
and present experience of blood in urine.
Results: The prevalence of reported blood in urine was calculated for
each division and Umba division recorded a significantly higher
prevalence of 21.6% compared to Mlola and Mlalo divisions which
had prevalence of 5.9 and 2.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Urinary
schistosomiasis is prevalent in Lushoto district particularly in Umba

Keywords: Schistosoma haematobium, haematuria, questionnaire, prevalence, schoolchildren, Lushoto

Original Research