Manifestations of Tuberculosis in TB-HIV co-infected patients: A retrospective study


  • M M Mirambo
  • H K Hamis
  • S Iddi
  • S J Jeremiah
  • H M Jaka
  • M M Zinga
  • D M Ruganuza
  • H D Mazigo
  • M F Mushi



Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, manifestations, opportunistic infections


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the common opportunistic infection and the main cause of death among HIV/AIDS patients. Diagnosis of TB in HIV/AIDS patients has been difficult due to atypical manifestations of TB in these patients

Broad objective: The main objective of the present study was to examine the common clinical and radiological manifestations of tuberculosis in association with immune status in HIV-TB co-infected patients

Methodology: Retrospective data of 339 HIV/AIDS patients co-infected with TB attended at Sekou Toure regional hospital between January 2007-May 2010 were collected. Information such as age, sex, baseline CD4 T cell counts, presented symptoms and form of TB were recorded and analyzed by Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0.

Results: Out of 339 patients, 165(48.7%) were females and 174 (51.3%) were males with mean age of 35 years. Of all the symptoms recorded, cough was the commonest symptom 320 (94.4%), recorded followed by weight loss 235(69.3%), fever 233(68.7%), night sweats 122(36%), anorexia 78(23%) and chest pain 27(8%) respectively. Radiological findings showed that pulmonary TB (PTB) was present in 310(91.4%) and extra pulmonary TB (EPTB) 48 (14.2%) patients respectively. Patients with both EPTB and PTB were 20(5.9%). Pleura effusion (50%) and adenitis (27%) were the common forms of EPTB. Acid fast bacilli results showed that, 112(33.04%) of the patients were AFB positive. Smear negativity rate was significantly high among patients with CD4 T cell count ? 400cells/?l (P=0.0001). Patients with TB symptoms and other clinical symptoms had significant low CD4 T cell counts (? 200 cells/?l) (P=0.0001).

Conclusions and recommendations: PTB with typical and atypical features was the most common manifestation of TB in HIV/AIDS co-infected patients. EPTB was also common and mostly in form of pleura effusion and adenitis. Low CD4 T cell counts were associated with high smear negativity rate and presence of other conditions in patients with TB symptoms. Sufficient knowledge of TB manifestation in HIV/AIDS patients is necessary for proper diagnosis of TB in HIV/AIDS patients. Moreover standardized diagnosis and optimization of case detection rate in HIV/AIDS needs to be adopted.



How to Cite

Mirambo, M. M., Hamis, H. K., Iddi, S., Jeremiah, S. J., Jaka, H. M., Zinga, M. M., Ruganuza, D. M., Mazigo, H. D., & Mushi, M. F. (2015). Manifestations of Tuberculosis in TB-HIV co-infected patients: A retrospective study. Tanzania Medical Journal, 26(2).



Original Research